Technotes provide you the latest notes of electrical measurements at one page. Different types of bridge circuits and circuit diagrams a bridge circuit is one kind of electrical circuit wherein the two branches of the circuit are linked to a third branch which is connected in between the first two branches at some middle point along them. Three phase energy meter invector meter, maximum demand meters. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. Schmalzel rowan university abstract freshman engineering students at rowan university are introduced to engineering measurements through a series of handson laboratories emphasizing teamwork, computer utilization, oral and. Chapter 1 part 1 ac bridges notes, electrical measurement, electrical engineering. In general, bridge forms a loop with a set of four arms or branches. Here we are interested in electrical measuring instruments so we will discuss about them in detail. This is on account of versatility and accuracy of ratio transformers, which are used in the transformer ratio bridges. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley. Different types of bridge circuits and its functions. The electrical measurements notes pdf em notes pdf book starts with the topics covering control and damping torques, design considerations type of p. Ac bridges for measurement of c 1 desauty bridge 2 weins bridge series 3 schering bridge ac bridges for measurement of l 4 anderson bridge 5 maxwell inductance bridge. Introducing civil engineering measurements through bridges.
The dc bridge is used for measuring the unknown electrical resistance. Let us consider the circuit of schering bridge as shown below. The hays bridges give a simple expression for the unknown inductances and are suitable for the coil having the quality factor greater than the 10 ohms. The frequencysensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known. Instrumentation and measurement in electrical engineering. Electrical measuring instruments types accuracy precision. Ac bridge circuits often have more than one adjustment, since both impedance magnitude and phase angle must be properly matched to balance. Types of bridges based on span, materials, structures. Experiments around sensitivity of wheat stone bridge, comparison of various types of indicating instruments, single phase induction type energy meter, ac bridges, measurement of iron losses with llyod fisher square, storage type digital oscilloscopes.
In the united states, electrical potentials more than 48 v are considered dangerous to human life. Cooper, modern electronic instrumentation and measurement techniques prentice hall. Sep 30, 2019 here you can download the free lecture notes of electrical measurements pdf notes em pdf notes materials with multiple file links. Series in sensors includes bibliographical references and index. Each branch may contain one or two electrical components. Two opposite corners of the square are connected to a source of electric current, such as a battery. Measurements of active, reactive, apparent power and power factor only mc330 measurements of energy in all 4 quadrants average values of measurands per interval only mc330 input output modules the modules are available with double inputsoutputs. Different types of bridge circuits and its functions elprocus. C bridges are used to measure the impedances consisting capacitance and inductances. I will also share the lecture notes and more topics on this subject. Pdf electrical measurements pdf notes em notes 2019 sw. Classification of bridges instrumentation and control. Electrical measurements pdf notes em pdf notes smartzworld.
A bridge circuit is one kind of electrical circuit wherein the two. C bridges are used to measure the resistance while the a. Types of bridges based on span, materials, structures, functions, utility etc. Electrical instruments measure the various electrical quantities like electrical power factor, power, voltage and. The other differences between the ac and dc bridge are shown below in. Bridges are often used for the precision measurement of component values, like. Here you can download the free lecture notes of electrical measurements pdf notes em pdf notes materials with multiple file links.
Basic electrical measurements e80 feb 26, 2012 prof. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it. As practical skills we aim at the end of the course to be able to perform simple electrical measurements of voltage, current, and resistance, as well as more sophisticated, scientific electrical measurements. Measuring instruments classification deflecting, control and damping torques ammeters and voltmeters pmmc, moving iron type instruments expression for the deflecting torque and control torque errors and compensations, extension of range using shunts and series resistance. To understand the use of instruments and techniques for practical measurements required in electrical measurements. Introducing civil engineering measurements through bridges kauser jahan, ralph a.
In fact, transformer ratio bridges are replacing the conventional ac bridges at a rapid rate. Dc bridges wheatstone bridge, ac bridges kelvin, hay, maxwell. The ac bridges are very convenient and give the accurate result of the measurement. The below figure shows an autotransformer provided with tappings. An interesting variation on this theme is found in the next bridge circuit, used to precisely measure inductances. A bridge circuit is mainly used to measure resistance. Classification of bridges the two types of bridges are. Mar 15, 2020 basically there are three types of measuring instruments and they are electrical measuring instruments mechanical measuring instruments. Measurements most important previous questions for ssc je 20182019. This transducer converts measured into an analogous electrical signal. The bridge was originally developed for laboratory measurement purposes and one of the intermediate bridging points is often adjustable when so used. The bridge circuits are mainly used for measuring unknown quantities such as. Cooper, modern electronic instrumentation and measurement techniques prentice hall, 1994. Sarah harriss lecture from 2009 overview circuits electrical building blocks.
It may be a voltage a frequency or some other electrical parameter. Bench test types of bridges the test bed type bridges provides several types of bridges. Electronic measuring instruments bridges tutorialspoint. The transformer ratio bridges are becoming increasingly popular and are being used for a wide range of applications. It covers in detail both analogue and digital instruments, measurements errors and uncertain. Accuracy, precision, resolution, reliability, repeatability, validity, errors and their analysis, standards of measurement. In this, we will discuss transformer ratio bridge working principle. Some impedance bridge circuits are frequencysensitive while others are not. Wheatstone bridge and the kelvin bridge are the types of the dc bridge. Classification of bridge circuits instrumentation tools. The ac bridge which is used for the measurement of frequency is.
The meter can be set and measurements can be checked with the rs 232rs 485 or ethernet communication. Sawhneya course in electrical and electronic measurements and instrumentation. C bridges use the alternating voltage as the excitation voltage. Dc bridges bridge can be a very useful component voltage dividers connected nulldetector meter movement connected between f the other three, which are calibrated, or whose 1r 4 r 3r 2 with the null detector, and ltage unlike other types of resistance dc bridges 1. Ac bridge circuits ac metering circuits electronics. Assuming that the autotransformer is ideal type, the division of applied voltage e into output voltages e 1 and e 2 is. The first such instrument, invented by british mathematician samuel christie and popularized in 1843 by sir charles wheatstone, measures resistance by comparing the current flowing through one part of the bridge with a known current flowing through another part. Sep 27, 2019 download electrical measurements imp questions pdf file. The matter presented here is prepared by the author for their respective teaching assignments by referring the text books and reference books. Resistance measurements method of measuring low, medium. The details of all publications are in the researchgate in full text pdf forms.
Measurements most important previous questions for ssc je 20182019 electrical exam. In the united states, electrical potentials more than 48v are considered dangerous to human life. Dc bridges are useful for measuring the value of unknown resistance, which is present in the bridge. Principles of electrical measurement by slawomir tumanski. All others, such as units for electrical resistance and voltage, are derived units. R, l, c voltage division experimental plots time domain frequency domain bode plots instrumentation.
This report highlights the basics of bridges and their types. The platform is too flexible to carry a light load. If the electrical components are arranged in the form a bridge or ring structure, then that electrical circuit is called a bridge. Suppose an alternating voltage e is applied across the winding. Variable conversion element the output of the primary sensing element is the electrical signal. To download the complete pdf questions and materials or chapter wise notes of em pdf notes, click on the below links respectively. The core moves linearly inside a transformer consisting of a center primary coil and two outer secondary coils wound on a cylindrical form. Maxwellwein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard. Download electrical measurements imp questions pdf file. Schering bridge measurement of capacitance using schering.
Although people have survived electrical shocks exceeding thousands of volts and lightning strikes carrying millions of joules of energy, everyone should treat electricity with caution and respect. Unit ii electrical and electronics instruments principle and types of analog and digital instruments voltmeters ammeters multimeters single and three phase wattmeters and energy meters magnetic measurements determination of bh curve and measurements of iron loss instrument transformers instruments for. Bridge, in electrical measurement, instrument for measuring electrical quantities. The capacitance of capacitor, inductance of an inductor and frequency of ac source can be measured with ac bridge. Meters, double element and three element dynamometer wattmeter, errors and compensations, measurement. Type subtype length range image longest span longest total arch bridge. The different elements contained box test bed can make several types of maintenance of the deck.
The value of phase angles depends on the type of components of individual. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the maxwellwien bridge sometimes known plainly as the maxwell bridge and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms of calibrated resistance and capacitance. Schering bridge theorythis bridge is used to measure to the capacitance of the capacitor, dissipation factor and measurement of relative permittivity. Apply the knowledge of electrical measurement techniques to design circuits. Although people have survived electrical shocks exceeding thousands of volts and lightning strikes carrying millions of watts of power, everyone should treat electricity with caution and respect. The bridge circuit was mainly designed for measurement purpose in the. The romans also used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. The electrical system normally depends upon a mechanical meter movement as indicating device. It is constructed from fou r x, one of which is variable r connected as the sides of a square. There are various types of bridges classified based on span, materials, types of bridge structures, functions, utility and position etc. Meters, double element and three element dynamometer wattmeter, errors and compensations, measurement of.
Polar and coordinate types standardization applications. This book explains the basic measurement techniques, instruments, and methods used in everyday practice. Here, c1 is the unknown capacitance whose value is to be determined with series electrical resistance r1. The ac bridges is a natural outgrowth of the dc bridge wheatstone bridge in its basic form consists of four bridge arms a source of excitation and a null or balanced detector. Electronic measurements and instrumentation pdf notes emi. Cromptons potentiometer standardization measurement of unknown resistance, current, voltage. Electronic measurements and instrumentation pdf notes. Other programs can put designs through virtual simulations to test their integrity or soundness in construction, efficiency, and effectiveness. To understand concepts of various electrical and electronic measuring instruments.542 1454 1280 465 1065 1316 1487 1352 1344 1229 1443 18 1516 900 1635 692 1367 1271 1391 737 830 541 909 967 62 482 1152